реферат, рефераты скачать Информационно-образоательный портал
Рефераты, курсовые, дипломы, научные работы,
реферат, рефераты скачать
реферат, рефераты скачать
реферат, рефераты скачать





1. Introduction

2. Characteristics

3. Isotopes

4. Natural occurrence

5. Production and refinement

6. Recycling

7. Chemistry

7.1 Oxidation state +1

7.2 Oxidation state +2

7.3 Oxidation state +3

7.4 Analysis

8. Applications

8.1 General use

8.2 Aluminium compounds

8.3 Aluminium alloys in structural applications

8.4 Household wiring

9. History

10. Etymology

10.1 Nomenclature history

10.2 Present-day spelling

11. Health concerns

12. Effect on plants

13. Conclusion

14. References

1. Introduction

Aluminium is a silvery white and ductile member of the boron group of chemical elements. It has the symbol Al; its atomic number is 13. It is not soluble in water under normal circumstances. Aluminium is the most abundant metal in the Earth's crust, and the third most abundant element therein, after oxygen and silicon. It makes up about 8% by weight of the Earth’s solid surface. Aluminium is too reactive chemically to occur in nature as a free metal. Instead, it is found combined in over 270 different minerals.[4] The chief source of aluminium is bauxite ore.

Aluminium is remarkable for its ability to resist corrosion due to the phenomenon of passivation and for the metal's low density. Structural components made from aluminium and its alloys are vital to the aerospace industry and very important in other areas of transportation and building. Its reactive nature makes it useful as a catalyst or additive in chemical mixtures, including being used in ammonium nitrate explosives to enhance blast power.

General properties

Name, symbol, number aluminium, Al, 13

Element category other metal

Group, period, block 13, 3, p

Standard atomic weight 26.9815386(13) g·mol−1

Electron configuration [Ne] 3s2 3p1

Electrons per shell 2, 8, 3 (Image)

Physical properties

Phase solid

Density (near r.t.) 2.70 g·cm−3

Liquid density at m.p. 2.375 g·cm−3

Melting point 933.47 K,660.32 °C,1220.58 °F

Boiling point 2792 K,2519 °C, 

© 2003-2013
Рефераты бесплатно, рефераты литература, курсовые работы, реферат, доклады, рефераты медицина, рефераты на тему, сочинения, реферат бесплатно, рефераты авиация, курсовые, рефераты биология, большая бибилиотека рефератов, дипломы, научные работы, рефераты право, рефераты, рефераты скачать, рефераты психология, рефераты математика, рефераты кулинария, рефераты логистика, рефераты анатомия, рефераты маркетинг, рефераты релиния, рефераты социология, рефераты менеджемент.