реферат, рефераты скачать Информационно-образоательный портал
Рефераты, курсовые, дипломы, научные работы,
реферат, рефераты скачать
реферат, рефераты скачать
МЕНЮ|
реферат, рефераты скачать
поиск
Политический лидер-Хосни Мубарак

Политический лидер-Хосни Мубарак

HOSNY MUBARAK

(birth 05.04.1928)

For years of board Mubarak has recommended itself, if not as the big

statesman, that, at least, as the sincere and reliable Arabian head. Can

solve numerous problems of the country, he, nevertheless, uses the best

efforts to prevent degradation.

HOSNY MUBARAK- " MISTER HONESTY "

Ten centimeters! Such distance separated vice-president Hosni

Mubaraka from death October, 6-th, 1981 when during military parade was

killed (more precisely to tell - Egyptian president Anvar Sadat is

executed).

He till now hears singing the bullets flying around of him. Remembers

that instant when one of aggressors has shouted to him: " Stand aside! You

are necessary for us not, the Pharaon is necessary for us! " Sees Sadat,

laying in a pool of blood...

In the evening of the same day, shocked, but safe, Mubarak

officially has informed compatriots on death of the head of the state. In

one week he became the president of Egypt. In that year to him it was

executed 53 years and he, apparently, was rather pleased with the role of

vice-president. But...

April, 15, 1975 Sadat has appointed the 47-years commander of Air Forces

Hosny Mubarak vice-president.

- I have chosen him for loyalty and reliability, - he has explained the

step some weeks after.

Hardly later, speaking about Mubarak, the Egyptian president will

note his such qualities, as persistence, fidelity and competence.

Wife of Sadat - Djihan which by then had already sufficient influence

on the husband, has agreed with this choice. She, on an own recognition,

found Mubarak" deprived any ambitions to remain devoted to his spouse ".

Itself Mubarak, as he said, was surprised and puzzled, when Sadat as

caused him and has offered a post of vice-president. Him career political

or the statesman as he secretly dreamed become the chief of the Joint Staff

of the Egyptian army never interested.

It is necessary to tell, that so unexpected choice has thrown into

confusion also his nearest environment. However, soon the reasons of this

step of steel are clear: the president wanted to get support of

militarians. It was found out also, that a choice of the Egyptian leader

has affected, as spoke in retinue Sadat, "unity of sights on rapproachement

of Cairo with Washington "and an allergy" to Soviet Union which suffered

both that, and another.

Anyway, Mohammed Hosny Seid Mubarak (his full name is those) became

the second person in Egypt, right hand of Sadat, his shadow. Before it he

has made an outstanding career of the professional militarian.

The Future president was born May, 4-th, 1928 in Egyptian country -

in small village Kafr an ale - Musyl'ha (province Manufia), in delta of

Nile. His father owned a small site of the ground and simultaneously worked

in legal management of a province.

Hosny it was brought up not in luxury. His friends and schoolmates were

children of fellah. Probably, it the openness and simplicity of the

president speak.

He studied persistently, and after leaving school parents advised him

to continue education at Cairo university at faculty of fine arts. However

he has decided on other...

War of 1948 with Israel has shown: the Arabian armies are disabled.

In the Egyptian officer case inflow of youth began from average layers,

including from a countryside. Hosny Mubarak has selected a trade of the

pilot. Having finished with distinction in 1949 military college, he served

on Sinai, then was the instructor of air academy. Repeatedly left in 50th

years in the USSR where it was trained in flights on modern types of planes

which Soviet Union delivered Egypt.

In 1956 Mubarak took part in reflection English, French and Israel

aggressions.

Abilities of the young pilot were noticed, and in 1959 he was

appointed the commander of a squadron of bombers TU - 16. In some years he

became the commander of a brigade. The maximum military education has

received in the USSR, in Academy of a name of Frunze in which studied in

1964-1965 years.

When in 1962 civil war began from Northern Yemen, Mubarak appeared in

structure of the Egyptian contingent directed to this country. He took part

in operations and has recommended himself the brave and skilful military

pilot.

By the way to tell, officers envying him, using this fact, began to

spread rumours, that Mubarak, being in Moscow, has turned in

"procommunist". A reality, however, another. He not bad speaks Russian,

gives due to planes of the Soviet manufacture, but he in any way cannot be

counted "procommunist". Faster on the contrary...

The most difficult test for Egypt became 1967. Israel has put heavy

defeat of the Egyptian army. Practically the aircraft completely was

destroyed.

At once after war Mubarak was appointed the chief of military college

in Bilbeis. Of him have set the task: taking into account the danger which

has hung above the country to increase release of pilots, having reduced

term of their preparation with 4 till 2 years. It was necessary to break

all system of training. Mubarak days did not leave college, personally

watched observance of the daily routine and study of cadets.

He Noticed by president Gamalem Abdel' Naserom, becomes the general of

aircraft in 1969 and is appointed the chief of a staff of the Egyptian Air

Forces. In 1972 he already - the commander military - air forces and

simultaneously the deputy minister of defense.

These posts have allowed him to reorganize the Egyptian aircraft

which was not answering at that time modern requirements and to prepare it

for war with Israel, begun October, 6, 1973. It is necessary to recognize,

that then the Air Forces of Egypt have achieved impressing results.

Mubarak becomes the national hero, receives from hands Sadat " Star

of Sinai" - the highest Egyptian military award - and погоны the general of

army. Military "ascention" he is a native of simple family - is obliged to

epoch of Nasere. To political rise of him has pushed Sadat, having

appointed vice-president and, thus, having opened him a way to the supreme

authority.

Since then this broad-shouldered, a dense constitution the general

began to seize art of political "pilotage". Sadat has given him for this

purpose the ample opportunities, having made him some kind of " departure

ambassador ". He has assigned on Mubarak performance delicate, sometimes

difficult assignments.

Aspiration of Sadat to play the leading part on international scene,

his often trips abroad gave Mubarak an opportunity to strengthen the

positions inside the country. He began that has reorganized political

police and confidential services which have penetrated into all chink the

Egyptian society. He, certainly, did not manage to cure all illnesses of

these departments, but as a result of the carried out cleaning he could get

rid of the elements which have compromised.

Becomingin 1978 vice-president national - democratic, created by

Sadat in exchange him of the spoiled Arabian socialist union, Mubarak has

got influential friends, that has strengthened his position even more.

During six with superfluous years vice-president honesty put into

practice a policy of the cartridge. In the top echelons of power about him

responded yours faithfully, marked his intelligence, natural sharpness,

hardness and frankness, serviceability.

Simple Egyptians appreciated vice-president incorruptibility. He has

managed to remain away from corruption with which his relatives, many high-

ranking officials, which were infected Sadat, not hesitating, plundered the

country. It is no surprising, that Egyptians till now name Mubarak " mister

honesty ".

Probably, he and would remain diligent vice-president, but the

bullets which have struck Sadat, have advanced Mubarak further away - he

became the president of Egypt.

INDEPENDENT FLIGHT

Mubarak has inherited from Sadat almost monarchic mode isolated in

the Arabian world and wallowing in external duties. However in people and

in the environment of secular opposition which many representatives

appeared at Sadat behind a lattice, coming to power new president have met

with the big hopes for changes.

"The New leader have supported therefore, - known Egyptian

journalist Hejkal, wrote in one of articles - that he was the most suitable

person, capable to disseminate the fear reigned in Egypt and to heal the

mental traumas put to the country. The person who would not began to make

grandiose plans was necessary for Egyptians, but also would not finish the

country before accident ".

Quiet, modest, but resolute - Mubarak has provided transition of

authority practically without a uniform false step. As has shown time, the

former military pilot who has gone in the first independent flight as the

head of the state, not only has not given in before getting from Sadat

troubles, but with honour has left many followed tests, having strengthened

the authority. Acknowledgement to that - participation of president

Mubaraka in meeting of chapters of the Arabian states and the governments,

taking place in Casablanca in May, 1989, and then his election on a post of

the chairman of the Organization of African Unity (OAU).

But it will be later... While Mubarak, having borrowed a

presidential armchair, has set free on all political prisoners and has

shaken hands with them. Members of the organization finishing with Sadat,

were prosecuted, and then executed or imprisoned. To tell the truth, many

secret extremist Islamic groupings soon were revealed, one of which - "Al-

Aksa" in May, 1982 has sentenced the president to a death penalty.

However, due to the vigorous activity of confidential services,

Mubarak has managed to separate the "moderate" elements of Islamic

opposition rejecting violence as a method of internal political struggle,

from " incorrigible extremists ". In result, for first twelve months of

board he has released 4.000 Islamic active workers.

Running forward, I shall tell, that Mubarak, knowing about the

danger proceeding from Islamic extremists, avoids drastic measures in

religious sphere. He understands, that the problem of radical Islamic

fundamentalism still remains on the agenda. Though extremists also are

tired out in a underground, they at any time can appear, how it already

happened in October, 1981, when was killed (or is executed) Sadat.

As to secular opposition, that, having come to authority, the

president at once has declared readiness to start dialogue with its

leaders. He has resolved activity of opposition parties, and even their

representation in parliament. Besides he has agreed with renewal of the

edition of newspapers of opposition.

Aspiring to strengthen the position, and at the same time being

compelled to be considered with supporters Sadata, kept key posts in the

political and economic life, the new president started to carry out gradual

"desadatation". Under his direct instruction were prosecuted the brother of

the deceased -president Ismat Sadat and his sons supervising roguish

operations. Process above them has allowed Mubarak to show the

determination to liquidate corruption in the Egyptian society.

The majority of those who watched activity Mubarak at the initial

stage, unanimously marked, that he has declared himself as the figure of "

new type ". When him have asked: " You are going to follow What political

line - of Nasere or of Sadat? ", he has answered with a smile: " Own,

certainly ".

On the spot has specified, that his policy will be based on four

principles: democratic pluralism, an openness, honesty and the decision of

economic problems.

No, president Mubarak did not call in question (anyway, public) the

basic directions of a political rate of the predecessor. But tried to

expand freedom of actions in the inherited frameworks, refusing

simultaneously from sensational gestures in style of Sadat. Moreover, he

did not try to disguise verbal demagogy problems facing to Egypt as it was

done by the former leader. In opposite to Sadat Mubarak did not undertake

ostentatious attempts to solve internal problems by reviewing the study.

But in the first speeches he constantly called for growth of labour

productivity, amplification of feeling of the responsibility, to social

justice.

As against Sadat new the head of the state abstained from promises,

but invariable tried to give a new pulse to economic policy. He slowly but

to develop began truly in Egypt democracy, trusting what exactly it will

provide in long-term prospect political stability to a mode. It is more

than that, he has frankly declared people, that the government can solve

all problems facing to it.

- New Egypt will be constructed only by work of Egyptians, - the

president likes to repeat.

Nevertheless, Mubarak in the intention to improve economy still

recognizes that "infitah" - the policy of open doors begun by Sadat,

basically was correct, but it was put into practice unsuccessfully and was

discredited corruption, reigned in Egypt. Having received thanking Camp-

Daving to agreements "special" attitudes from USA, president Mubarak tried

to squeeze out from them a maximum possible. Both in political, and in the

economic plan, skilfully playing on aspiration of Americans to be fixed on

Near East.

Using such trump card as threat of freezing, and even a severance of

diplomatic relations with Israel, Mubarak has received to some extent to

influence a middle East policy of USA. Certainly, a degree of this

influence to overestimate does not cost, but it, undoubtedly, is.

President Mubarak, certainly, appreciates communications of Egypt

and USA as receives from them two, and even it is more, billions dollars

annually as gratuitous gifts, loans and military credits. These injections

of steel for him that "lifebuoy ring" which keeps on shallow the Egyptian

economy.

But also here there are strict limits on cooperation, is especial at

a political level. So, for example, on the offer of USA to help with

construction of military base on Red sea for the forces of fast expansion

the Egyptian president has answered with resolute refusal.He has declared,

that Egypt will construct its itself and will keep there the control.

Americans can use it when Cairo will consider military intervention of

Washington necessary.

Never refusing "special" attitudes from USA, Mubarak at the same time

has made appreciable efforts for restoration of normal diplomatic relations

with Soviet Union which were completely normalized in 1984. Practically all

obstacles, long time braking development of attitudes between our countries

today are eliminated.

It is not necessary to think, however, that " independent flight "

passed president Mubaraka smoothly. The Israeli intrusion into Lebanon in

June, 1982 has caused internal pressure on Mubarak with the purpose to

change character of the egipetsko-Israeli attitudes. One more test for him

steel of excitement of 17 thousand employees of forces of the internal

safety, having a place in February, 1986. The army has quickly suppressed

these excitements, and the president, due to resolute actions, has

strengthened the positions even more.

AEROBATICS

In October, 1987 the National assembly of Egypt unanimously has

selected Hosny Mubarak the president on the second six-year term. In

November of the same year the League of Arabian countries (LAC) has made

the decision that its members can restore if will wish, full diplomatic

relations with Egypt. Nine countries, including Saudi Arabia, almost

immediately have directed the ambassadors to Cairo.

In December of the same year in Cairo the flag above representation

of Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) was lifted. Thus Mubarak has

shown, that Egypt again is ready to play a role of the "traffic controller"

assisting negotiations PLO and USA, Jordan and Israel about convocation of

peace conference on Near East.

One of the key factors which have defined finally success of a

strategic rate of diplomacy Mubarak on full returning of Egypt in the

Arabian numbers, precisely thought over, consecutive behaviour of Cairo in

its contacts to Tel Aviv was. From the moment of coming to power by the new

president very successful form of the attitude of Egypt to Israel was

produced: " Prospects of development of bilaterial communications are

defined by the general situation on Near East, process of middle East

settlement ".

Such formulation (and Mubarak followed it strictly) enabled to hold

Israel on respectful distance. On the other hand, the similar position

obviously directed on protection common Arabian of interests, could not

remain unnoticed in the Arabian capitals.

Has not remained unnoticed and such fact: president Mubarak - the

unique Egyptian head of a high rank whom has refused to visit Israel,

despite of numerous official invitations. To tell the truth, when him

already "have absolutely got", and he could not resist to pressing, he had

to go at some o'clock per the small Israeli settlement located in desert

Negev. " I have made it against my heart... " - he has admitted later.

Besides the Egyptian president willingly offered the services for

settlement of many bilateral conflicts, for example, irano-Iraq. All this

has helped creation of completely new representation about Egypt, radical

image distinguished from Sadat's representation. In many respects this was

promoted also by the person of Mubarak.

Sadat loved formal receptions, magnificent suppers, ceremonial. Mubarak

does not love high life, hates everything, that, in his opinion, is an

excess. Sadat adored to appear on public in motley military uniforms at

numerous awards. Mubarak does not put on the form since the civil post has

held.

Sadat was completely corrupt, Mubarak - the incorruptible patriot.

Sadat spent time in magnificent palaces. Mubarak lives in the small 2-

storeyed country house constructed by him(it) on own means still(even) in

1971.

Sadat the born actor, the fan of light of a stage and long tiresome

speeches. Mubarak has no eloquence, but he also is deprived propensities of

the predecessor to eccentric to theatrical gestures, frankly dislikes

chatterers.

Intellectuals laugh at him, tell about him every possible histories.

But not malicious, as about Sadat.

Mubarak it is sincerely devoted to business of democracy, Sadat only

dexterously juggled with this term. The new president in practice has

proved, that his performances in protection of a personal freedom - not

mere words. At him political life in the country began more democratic,

than at Sadat.

In Egypt many consider, that Mubarak, becoming the witness of attempt

at the predecessor, has learnt from this the important lesson: it is better

to move forward gradually and to risk only insignificant failures, than to

try to supervise over the country in the dictatorial style of Sadat fraught

with shocks. Probably, for this reason care, the pragmatism, moderation and

a sequence became distinctive features of a political rate at the new

president.

Naming Mubarak "embodiment of care", already mentioned Heikal

emphasizes, that it "care of the skilled pilot to which before he will lift

the plane in top, the exact data on weather, loading and other data " are

necessary.

In opinion of one western diplomat, Mubarak, in essence, has remained

" the rectilinear commander who gives orders and expects obedience ". But

he not the dictator. He first of all the militarian who annoys if his

orders are not carried out.

Egyptians in the greater degree, than inhabitants of other countries,

appreciate a shade of some greatness in the heads. Therefore many criticize

Mubarak for his modest suits, the not refined speech and excessive shyness.

They consider, that he has not enough scope of the present statesman.

Anyway, but due to persistence and thin feeling of a step president

Mubarak has managed to rally Egypt and to return to it former authority.

Arabs could not understand unpredictable of Sadat and did not trust him.

Mubarak with his consecutive and realistic foreign line to them it be clear

and causes trust. With him want to deal.

Having disseminated the extremely adverse impression made on

Arabian world by Sadat, president Mubarak has managed to turn to itself

arabs.

Year of 1989 became rotary both for Egypt, and for Mubarak. The

president started to play more and more appreciable role on middle East,

African and even world stages.

The National hero Egyptians come back of Casablanca Mubarak where

there passed the interArabian meeting have met. At this summit the

president of Egypt already in the first speech with resoluteness inherent

in him has let know, that Cairo is going to provide to itself indisputable

leadership in the Arabian world.

Alongside with increase of the prestige abroad, the Egyptian

president has strengthened the authority and inside the country.

The Ministry of Educatuon of the Russian Federation

The State University of Humanitarian Sciences

The Department of Foreign Languages

HOSNY MUBARAK – THE PRESIDENT OF EGYPT

The student of the first year

the Department of political studies

Nikolaeva Ekaterina Alekseevna

Moscow, 2002

CONTENTS:

Introduction.

1. Hosny Mubarak – “Misner Honesty”.

2. Independent fligyt.

3. Aerobatics.

Conclusion.

Literature.

INTRODUCTION

In an extreme antiquity the territory of Egypt became a cradle of one

of the first in a history of mankind of civilizations. It many times was

exposed to invasions of foreign conquerors. In 1882 Egypt was occupied by

England, in 1914 is posted by the English protectorate. Formal declaration

Egypt as independent kingdom has taken place in 1922. Having imposed to

Egypt in 1936 the unequal contract, England continued to occupy a zone of

Suez canal. June, 18, 1953 Egypt is proclaimed by republic.

After revolution of 1953 at life of the oustanding figure of the

Arabian national-liberation movement of president Nasera in Egypt

progressive social and economic transformations were carried out. The

antiimperialistic foreign policy, a rate on friendship and widespread

cooperation from the USSR and was consistently carried out by other

socialist countries.

From the beginning 1970 years внетренняя and the foreign policy of

Egypt began to undergo essential changes. Its management led by Садатом

began to pursue a policy of " liberalization of economy " and " open doors

", характеризовавшуюся wide encouragement of the private capital and

foreign investments. Over a policy of the Egyptian management has prevailed

proimperialistic a rate. In result the country experiences sharp

sociopolitical and an economic crisis.

In Egypt counteraction to an antinational reactionary rate of a mode

amplified on the part of various political forces. Trying to suppress this

counteraction, authorities resorted to more and more wide reprisals. It has

resulted in an aggravation of conditions in the country. October, 6, 1981

during military parade in Cairo the group of the military men belonging to

the Muslim religious organization, accomplishes attempt on Sadat and he was

killed.

The New Egyptian management continues to carry out in basically a

foreign policy leaning on close cooperation with USA. Inside the country it

has cancelled some repressive measures. The significant number of political

prisoners is released.

The constitution Working in Egypt is accepted September, 11, 1971.

The supreme body of legislature - National assembly.

CONCLUSION

Many recollect, that in the first years of board Mubarak has taken

advantage in the interests of a condition of the general simplification

which has come after destruction of Sadat, and the termination of the

dramatized performances of the former president. Prudence new heads of the

state was perceived faster as the certificate of wisdom, instead of as an

attribute of shyness. He typed glasses, making special accent on modesty

and focusing mass media on reduction of attention to his person and members

of family. Among some other innovations he has sworn himself to limit the

speeches till one hour.

Today, as well as within service in the Air Forces, president Mubarak

wakes up in five mornings and prepares for breakfast for family. From six

up to eight studies reports and messages then leaves for the office.

Till 15-00 - meetings with foreign delegations, meetings with members

of the government and experts. Then two school hours sports in club of the

Air Forces - gymnastics and "squash" (game reminding tennis). The tightened

figure the president can give odds to young people.

In the Evening - continuation of a working day.

For years of board Mubarak has recommended itself, if not as the big

statesman, that, at least, as the sincere and reliable Arabian head. Can

solve numerous problems of the country, he, nevertheless, uses the best

efforts to prevent decline.

The tasks worth today before the president, hard for Egypt is

located in region where the extremism represents the usual phenomenon, and

the moderate approach - exception.

Hosny Mubarak can make still very much. The only thing, that he

should not make is to wait...

LITERATURE

1) The directory of “The Country of the world”, 1986.

2) The big encyclopaedic dictionary, 1991.

3) The concise Oxford dictionary of politics, 2001.



© 2003-2013
Рефераты бесплатно, рефераты литература, курсовые работы, реферат, доклады, рефераты медицина, рефераты на тему, сочинения, реферат бесплатно, рефераты авиация, курсовые, рефераты биология, большая бибилиотека рефератов, дипломы, научные работы, рефераты право, рефераты, рефераты скачать, рефераты психология, рефераты математика, рефераты кулинария, рефераты логистика, рефераты анатомия, рефераты маркетинг, рефераты релиния, рефераты социология, рефераты менеджемент.