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Мотивация и стратегия прямого инвестирования в конкурентной среде

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Додаток 1

 

The review of the literature

 

International investment processes make a main part of economic stabilization in world economy. Therefore knowledge of basic postulates of the theory international investment processes is necessary for each expert in economy. The problems of international investment activity in particular are staticized today in conditions of globalization of economic arrive. Just development and system transformation of modern investment processes form global competitive environment. Therefore it is extremely important to investigate conditions of formation, moving and use of global investment resources.

It is possible to divide foreign literature, in which the investment processes are considered, on some groups.

 So, some sources are devoted to problems of globalization of economic processes and in this context consider problems of implementation of the direct foreign investments, making an emphasis on empirical research of these processes. As an outcome, because of revealed tendencies and examples of development of separate countries the recommendations, script on implementation of the direct investments in the different forms are given, the modes of an investment in different countries are considered, are formed ratings of countries on a criterion of favourability of an investment climate, attractiveness of branches of economy.

The large attention is given to a role of TNC - as widespread form of implementation of the direct investments in large scales.

Modern diversificate international investment activity is the powerful factor of economic arrives. The special place of the international investments in a world economic system is based on many factors, most significant from which is:

·                       Mobility of all factors and, first of all, capital;

·                       The large-scale and dynamic development of internationalization processes, which fundamentals is made by heavily investment activity;

·                       Dominance in an international division of labor of industrial and scientific and technical cooperation, which efficiency depends on;

·                       TNC;

·                       The formation and development of international integration group, within the framework of which free motion of the goods, services, labor provides also free motion of the capitals.

Depending on a degree of maturity of national economy, level it integration in global economy the motivation and policy concerning the investments abroad and of foreign investments is formed.

All growing internationalization of global development by a radical image changes volumes both character of motion of the factors and outcomes of production, makes global a core of economic activity. Just investment globalization influences on steps of all countries and regions of the world, forms qualitatively new environment of economic development.

The authors carry out the analysis on substantial literary and facts, with allowance for of positive and negative influences of globalization on economic of realities of operation national economies of developed countries, developing countries, and countries, which are in a condition of market transformation.

To such sources it is possible to relate:

International business: external environment and business operation Daniels John D., Radeba Lee H.

The Lexus and the Olive Tree : Understanding Globalization
by Thomas L. Friedman

A Future Perfect : The Challenge and Hidden Promise of Globalization
by John Micklethwait, Adrian Wooldridge

 

The next group of sources is devoted to theoretical aspects of investment. But the investments on a criterion of the control of the investor behind object of an investment are divided on direct and portfolio, in these works both kinds of the investments are considered, the in-depth characteristic of the forms, methods of their implementation and regulation is given. Some theoretical problems have debatable character. In particular it concerns priorities of development of economy and paths of activation of investment process.

Knowledge of basic postulates of the theory international investment processes is necessary for each expert in economy. In this connection the given books were developed for the readers, which have theoretical knowledge of economy. The specificity of the books is the specific form of a presenting the material - as the schemes, tables, and schedules with the comments.

The books grant definition of basic concepts, gives their classification, structure. In the books, forms, kinds, tendencies of development of international investment processes, motivation of the direct partners, elements of an investment climate and demotivators of investment activity in international economy are considered as all composites international investments.

The books are convenient for learning the theory of the international investments

 To this group belong:

Dictionary of Finance and Investment Terms (Barron's Financial Guides)
by John Downes (Preface), et al

Home Buying for Dummies (For Dummies) by Eric Tyson, Ray Brown

The Master Swing Trader: Tools and Techniques to Profit from Outstanding Short-Term Trading Opportunities by Alan S. Farley

Stock Options: Getting Your Share of the Action: Negotiating Shares and Terms in Incentive and Nonqualified Plans by Tom Taulli, Bruce Brumberg

The Warren Buffett Way : Investment Strategies of the World's Greatest Investor
by Robert G., Jr Hagstrom, Peter S. Lynch (Preface)

Wall Street Words : An Essential A to Z Guide for Today's Investor by David Logan Scott

Stocks for the Long Run by Jeremy J. Siegel, Peter L. Bernstein

 

The following group is issuings devoted to practical implementation of the investments. In such works are investigated as theoretical problems of engaging of the capital for an investment and practical gears of development of production of the enterprises and companies by an investment.

From the practical party there is generalized global and domestic experience of investment policy of firms and companies rather:

— Reforming the relations of the property and creation of economic companies;

— Partnership relations with banks and financial-credit institutions;

— Extension conventional and introduction of new financial tools of an investment of production;

·                        Portfolio of an investment and management of investment portfolios, behavior of the investor in the share market;

·                       The strategies of implementation of the investments;

·                       Pro and contra of the different forms of the investments;

·                       Methods of an evaluation of investment climate;

·                       Development of the strategy of implementation of the investments.

 

The substantiation of expediency investment, definition financial, budget and economic efficiency of investment costs calculation of life cycle of the investments and budgeting of the capital. These techniques should be applied to alternative calculations at a decision making and can be useful at the substantiation business - plan of the investment projects.

The large attention is allocated to a stage of capitalization of the investments, that is features of pricing and designing in an investment sphere, conclusion of the agreements between the participants of investment process, processing of the estimates of financing of the projects, acceptance of objects in operation and calculations for executed activities.

The exit of firms on the external markets is connected to preliminary formation of a lot of systems of acceptance of the administrative solutions. External environment is specific environment, which actuates a lot of the factors, on which the firm has minor influence. For this reason their detail study, constant monitoring and development of specific operations on existence in a certain economic climate is necessary. The given works are the theoretical allowance for study of economic environment and development of the detailed strategies of an exit on the external markets.

The investment process is not finished by introduction of object in an operation, and proceeds while in service through an investment, renovation and technical requirement, developments of production and gain of new seller's markets.

In the books the most significant characteristics of processes of an investment in a national economic system are illuminated, the research of paths and forms of investment interaction at international and global levels is carried out. As interconnected also are structural nationalities, international and global financial and investment markets are considered.

Scientific and practical interest has generalization rather: an investment climate, systems of an evaluation and monitoring; exchange share both structures, operations; macro and micromodels of optimization of investment processes.

Rich Dad's Guide to Investing : What the Rich Invest in That the Poor and the Middle Class Do Not by Robert T. Kiyosaki, Sharon L. Lechter
See picture
Make Your Own Living Trust (Make Your Own Living Trust, 4th Ed)
by Denis Clifford, Mary Randolph

Rites of Passage at $100,000 to $1 Million+: Your Insider's Lifetime Guide to Executive Job-Changing and Faster Career Progress in the 21st Century
by John Lucht

How to Make Money in Stocks : A Winning System in Good Times or Bad
by William J. O'Neil (Preface)

Winning the Loser's Game: Timeless Strategies for Successful Investing
by Charles D. Ellis

Smart Couples Finish Rich : 9 Steps to Creating a Rich Future for You and Your Partner by David Bach

The Millionaire Next Door : The Surprising Secrets of America's Wealthy
by Thomas J. Phd Stanley, William D., Phd Danko

Buy and Hold : 7 Steps to a Real Estate Fortune by David Schumacher

The Intelligent Investor : A Book of Practical Counsel by Benjamin Graham, Warren E. Buffett (Preface)

The Unofficial Guide to Real Estate Investing by Spencer Strauss, Martin J. Stone

 

Concerning Ukraine, in the foreign literature there are articles devoted to the review and the analysis of the macroeconomic tendencies, structure of the investments, investment climate of country, legal and institutional framework for foreign investment in Ukraine. Such publications serve an information source for the investors wishing to invest in economy of Ukraine. And the articles of the independent experts or international organizations present a broad spectrum of economic parameters of development of a national economy, describe legislative base regulating investment processes, grant the recommendations concerning improving an investment climate.

Тhe particular recommendations of rather selective regulation of the foreign investments, optimization of their volumes and structure, localization of a favorable investment climate is given. It is proved, that only through an effective utilization of own and international investment resources it is possible to create conditions for withdrawal from crisis and to put in pawn fundamentals for reaching international competitiveness of economy of Ukraine. An example can be the publication OECD that is accessible to each by means of arrangement it on the site of organization in Internet. Precisely also, it is possible to meet articles of similar character concerning other countries.

In majority of countries with transforming economies the effectively used foreign investments become the key factor of development of these countries, and of the investment abroad assists their organic integration in global economy. It is clear, that the international investment takes an outstanding place and in a structure of priorities of economy of Ukraine.

The domestic science officers try to justify national investment priorities, to find the operational gears of engaging and effective utilization of the foreign of investments. However scales and level of scientific processing of investment problems of economic development of Ukraine remain insufficient. In practice it has resulted in absence of significant methodological influence on an investment situation.

As a whole analysis of development of researches of modern investment processes testifies to necessity and capability of certain transformation of elements of their theoretical base concerning procedures of practice on the basis of a system approach and modeling.

 

 

 

 

Додаток 2

The summary

On degree work on the subject of « Motives and strategies of direct investments in competitive environment »

 

The given theme is extremely actual, that is stipulated by recess of processes internationalizing of economies in different regions of the world, fast development of modern international business, increase of a role of the markets of the capitals in a world turn-over of resources.

At research of a theme of the given activity the author had by the purpose not only to show process of development of the international investment markets, but also to illuminate modern problems, paths of their solution and further perspectives of development of the investment markets at an international and global level.

In research the following problems are decided: the theoretical premises of motivation of processes of a direct investment, theoretical models of the strategies of a direct investment, stages of implementation of the direct investments are shown; their essence and value at the present stage is uncovered; the main models of assistance to engaging of the direct investments are adduced; the practical aspects of operation of the subjects of processes of a direct investment are shown; the main world parameters of development of the market of the direct investments and perspectives of development of such markets in global conditions of economy are adduced.

The conclusions and proposals of the author base on outcomes of the analysis of historical premises and modern lines of operation of the international investment markets.

The first section of degree work is devoted to definition of the theoretical bases of operation of the subjects of a direct investment. The concepts of competitive environment, motives and strategies are adduced, their contents, main conditions of their application are uncovered. The advantages of the direct investments are determined, their systematization is shown, and their value in modern international business is underlined. The application of the forms of assistance to engaging of the direct investments in a national economy is justified.

In the second section the modern lines and problems in implementation of the direct investments are analyzed. Under influence of historical premises and changes of international economy the rather reasonable models of acceptance of the investment solutions at the present stage were generated. To milestones concern: definition of the purpose and problems of an investment, realization of marketing researches and drawing up business - plan, study of an investment climate, development of the strategies of the foreign investments, realization (control, further operations).

The direct investment implements in the forms of joint venture or enterprise with100 % the foreign investments. In work there is shown classification of the forms of an investment and their main characteristics.

According to the requirements of modern international economy there are new financial and technical tools, which assist protection of the investors against risk. Diverse there is tools of the analysis and marketing researches tools of the strategies. It conducts to stabilization in the investment market, as the capability of origin of unforeseen business-processes is eliminated.

The third section of research is devoted to determination of basic modern lines of the international markets of the direct investments. Per the last years the market of the direct foreign investments feels constant increase. The change of a structure of flows is observed only

The outcomes of research can be used by a broad auditories of the experts from international economy, financial management, and foreign trade activities.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


 


[1] Портной А.М. Тенденции развития мирового рынка капиталов// США – экономика, политика, инвестиции.- 1997.- №2, с.6-7.


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